Deena’s BIO 191 Archived Resources

For many of you, this BIO class is your introduction to a college level science course. It is a very different environment than high school. With that in mind, you’ll have to make the necessary adjustments in order to succeed in BIO 191! Below are a bunch of resources that I think are helpful for BIO 191 students. If you have any questions come to an SI session or leave a comment below. You can also upload any of your helpful resources in the comment section!


Below are a few tips that I’ve compiled over my years at DePaul that I believe will provide a successful opportunity and a smooth transition into BIO 191.

  1. Make sure to attend lecture! This is by far one of the most crucial things that you will learn in your time taking this class. Often times, Dr. Soderstrom will reiterate things in lecture that are not mentioned in the book. You are responsible for what is taught in lecture and the best way to know what is mentioned is to come to class. Also, remember that attendance is taken through daily iClicker questions so come prepared so you can get free points!
  2. Be an active note-taker in class! Print out the slides with a section for you to write your own notes. Ask questions in class and foster a discussion when Dr. Soderstrom opens up the opportunity to. The best way for you to learn is to have this active participation.
  3. Be on top of everything! Take lecture seriously and make sure that you stay up to date with all the coursework and materials. Schedule a time to take your quiz early so that you have all the proper resources for success.
  4. Take advantage of the resources provided! Dr. Soderstrom, Annie, and I are all here to ensure your success in BIO 191. If you ever have any questions or feel as though you need more assistance or just want to stay on track, contact one of us and we will be more than willing to help! Coming to SI sessions is also a great way to take advantage of these resources because a good student-led study group can help you solidify what you learned in lecture.

What have we done in SI sessions?

Each week, I will include a short summary guide of what we reviewed in SI. If you weren’t able to make it to the sessions, this is a good way to see what we went over and this is a great way to test your knowledge on the material. If you did come to the sessions, this is also a great way to tie everything that we learned together!

Week 1

  • Review of the five unifying themes of life
    • They’re all connected with one another somehow. It’s worthwhile to know how they relate to one another in order to understand the bigger picture
  • Review of the following vocabulary terms;
    • Matter
    • Elements
    • Compounds
    • Atomic number
    • Mass number
    • Atomic structure
    • Subatomic particles
    • Isotopes
  • Review of energy levels
    • How energy is determined by valence electrons
  • Review of bonding
    • Covalent bonds
      • Polar versus non-polar
    • Ionic bonds
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • Van Der Waals interactions
  • Review of reactions
    • Reactants and products

Week 2

  • Review of Water
    • Importance of water to life: cells, reactions, different states (solid, liquid, gases)
    • Bonding in water: polar covalent and Hydrogen bonds
    • Properties of water
      • Temperature moderation
        • Heat bank, absorbs heat from warm air and releases heat in cooler air
        • This property is due to Hydrogen bonding
      • Density
        • Ice is less dense than liquid, why is this important?
      • Cohesion
        • Due to water’s increased surface tension, why is this important?
      • Solvent properties
        • Hydration shells, versatile
        • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions
      • Review of chemistry
        • What is the molecular mass? How can you calculate this?
        • What is the molarity?
        • Acid & base chemistry
          • How do we distinguish acids from bases?
            • Hint: think pH scale
          • How do we calculate pH?
          • What are buffers and why are they important in biological life?

Week 3

  • Review of Carbon
    • Bonding properties of carbon
      • What atoms do carbon usually bond to?
      • How many valence electrons does carbon have?
      • Carbon backbones can have different lengths, branching, double bonds…
    • What are hydrocarbons?
    • What is an isomer?
      • Review of the different kinds of isomers
      • Structural
      • Cis-trans
      • Enantiomers
    • What are functional groups? What atoms are in each group?
      • Review of the different kinds of functional groups
      • Hydroxyl
      • Carbonyl
      • Carboxyl
      • Amino
      • Sulfhydryl
      • Phosphate
      • Methyl
    • Review of macromolecules
      • What are macromolecules? How are they built?
      • What reaction bonds monomers together? What reaction breaks monomers apart?
      • Carbohydrates
        • What is a carbohydrate? What are the monomers that are used to build carbohydrates?
        • What are some properties of carbohydrates?
        • What are monosaccharides? Disaccharides? Polysaccharides?
        • What is the general equation of carbohydrates?
        • What polysaccharides are we very familiar with? (think storage cells)
          • How do these differ in plants from animals?
        • Lipids
          • What are lipids?
          • Why are these not true polymers?
          • What are some properties of lipids?
          • What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
          • What are the different kinds of lipids that we know?
          • Why are lipids better in storage than polysaccharides?
          • What are phospholipids? What are they made up of?
          • Describe the phospholipid bilayer
          • What are steroids?
        • Proteins
          • What are the functions of proteins?
          • What are the properties of proteins?
          • What are proteins made of?
          • What is an amino acid?
          • How are amino acids bonded with one another?
          • What is protein structure? What are the four different structures we looked at? What does each layer do?
          • What is denaturation? What causes this?
        • Nucleic acids
          • What are nucleic acids?
          • What are the properties of nucleic acids?
          • What are nucleic acids made of?
          • What is the function of a nucleic acid?
          • How are the monomers of nucleic acids bonded together?
          • What’s a pyrimidine? A purine?

Week 4

  • Cells
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes
    • Basic features of all cells
    • Cell structures and organelles
      • Nucleus
        • Nuclear envelope
        • Nuclear lamina
        • Nuclear matrix
        • Nucleolus
        • Chromatin
      • Ribosomes
      • Endomembrane System
      • Endoplamic Reticulum
        • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
        • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
        • Endoplasmic reticulum lumen
        • Cisternal Maturation Model
      • Golgi Apparatus
      • Lysosome
      • Vacuoles
      • Mitochondria
      • Chloroplasts
      • Peroxisomes
      • Cytoskeleton
        • Microtubules
        • Centrosomes
        • Cilia
        • Flagella
        • Microfilaments
        • Intermediate Filaments
      • Cell walls
      • Extracellular Matrix
    • Cell Junctions
      • Plasmodesmata
      • Tight junctions
      • Desmosomes
      • Gap Junctions

Week 5

  • Plasma membrane
    • Functions: control traffic, selective permeability, transport
    • Fluid Mosaic Model
    • Amphipathic
    • Transport
      • Diffusion
      • Passive Transport
      • Osmosis
      • Facilitated Diffusion
      • Active Transport
      • Bulk Transport
  • Metabolism
    • Anabolic and catabolic reactions
    • Energy
      • Kinetic energy
      • Potential energy
      • Thermal energy
      • Chemical energy
    • Thermodynamics
      • 1st and 2nd law
    • Spontaneous and nonspontaneous reactions
      • exergonic vs endergonic reactions

Week 6

  • Cellular Respiration
    • Generates energy in the form of ATP, occurs in the mitochondria
    • Occurs with and without oxygen
    • RedOx reactions – LEO GER
      • Reduction reactions: Gain Electrons – Reduction (GER)
      • Oxidation reactions: Lose Electrons – Oxidation (LEO)
    • Glycolysis
      • Breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules
      • Occurs in the cytosol and occurs whether or not there is oxygen
      • Two phases: energy investment phase and energy payoff phase
    • Pyruvate Oxidation
      • Pyruvate needs to be converted to Acetyl CoA
        • carboxyl group is removed
        • NAD+ becomes NADH
        • Acetate and CoA form acetyl CoA
    • Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
      • Completes the breakdown of Pyruvate to CO2
      • Produces 1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 (x2 because there are two pyruvate molecules)
      • NADH and FADH2 relay their electrons to the Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Most of the energy in cellular respiration comes from the oxidation of glucose in reduced coenzyme forms that occur in this step (indirectly)
      • ETC – electrons are transported down a chain to O2
      • Chemiosmosis – uses energy in the proton gradient to drive cellular work
    • Fermentation & Anaerobic Respiration
      • Fermentation – produces ATP in a substrate level phosphorylation
      • Anaerobic respiration – uses the ETC but with different electron acceptors

Week 7 – EXAM WEEK

Week 8

  • Mitosis
    • Cell growth – purposes?
    • Chromosomes
    • Daughter cells – identical cells
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  • Cell Cycle Regulation
    • Checkpoints
  • Meiosis I and II
    • Sexual cell division
    • Crossing over and mutations
      • Variation
    • Heredity
    • Diploid cells vs haploid cells
    • Fertilization – zygote
    • Prophase I
    • Metaphase I
    • Anaphase I
    • Telophase I and Cytokinesis
    • Prophase II
    • Metaphase II
    • Anaphase II
    • Telophase II and Cytokinesis

Week 9

  • Mendelian genetics
    • Pea plant
    • Breeding – P generation, F1 generation, F2 generation
    • Law of segregation
    • Law of independent assortment
    • Homozygous vs heterozygous
    • Dominant vs recessive
  • Probability
    • Know the multiplication and addition rules of probability
  • Dominance
    • Complete vs incomplete dominance
    • Codominance
    • Multiple alleles
  • Pedigrees
    • Disorders based on inheritance
  • Sex chromosomes
    • XX and XY
    • Sex linked disorders
  • Gene mapping
    • Recombination frequences
  • Chromosomal disorders
    • Mutations – too many chromosomes, too little chromosomes, etc.

Week 10

  • DNA
    • Chargaff’s rule
    • Base pairing: A-T (2 H bonds) and G-C (3 H bonds)
      • Purine with a pyrimidine
    • Structure
      • Hydrophobic interior (nitrogenous bases) and hydrophilic backbone (phosphate groups)
    • History of DNA discovery
      • Watson, Crick, Franklin
  • DNA Transcription
    • Initiation and associated enzymes
    • Elongation and associated enzymes
    • Termination and associated enzymes
  • Central Dogma
    • Transcription – DNA to RNA
    • Translation – RNA to Proteins

Worksheets and Practice Exams from SI Sessions


I promised everyone a practice exam so here it is! I’ll be posting up the answer key Thursday in the late afternoon! Good luck studying!

Download (DOCX, 117KB)

I hope studying is productive for everyone. The answer key to the Practice Exam is below! As always – if there are any questions, feel free to email me!

Download (DOCX, 122KB)


I promised everyone a practice exam so here it is! I’ll be posting up the answer key Thursday in the late afternoon! Good luck studying!

Download (DOCX, 131KB)

I hope studying is productive for everyone. The answer key to the Practice Exam is below! As always – if there are any questions, feel free to email me!

Download (DOCX, 137KB)

Final Exam

As promised – here is the final exam practice test along with the answer key below. Good luck studying!

Download (DOCX, 170KB)

I hope studying is productive for everyone. The answer key to the Practice Exam is below! As always – if there are any questions, feel free to email me!

Download (DOCX, 177KB)

-Deena Kishawi

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