Exam 2 (Animals) Study Guide

Exam II Study Guide – BIO 193

  • Know the micronutrients and macronutrients
    • It might be helpful to think of an acronym or mnemonic.
    • Micronutrients: Mo, B, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cl
    • Macronutrients: C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, Mg
  • Know the plant hormones and what their structures look like
    • Auxin: elongation stimulation, synthesized in apical meristem, promotes fruit growth
      • Takes part in the acid-growth hypothesis: stimulates proton pump/ATPase, lowers the pH in the cell wall, increases the voltage, activates expansins
    • Cytokins: stimulates cytokinesis (cell division)
      • Direct inhibition hypothesis, interacts with auxin, transported from the terminal bud, restrains axillary bud development, cytokins transported up from the roots to stimulate bud growth
    • Gibberellins: produced by the roots/young leaves, stimulate growth, affect cell division and promote stem elongation
      • Think of the grapes example Dr. Dean mentioned in class!
    • ABA: slows growth, promotes dormancy, causes stomata to close, protects the seed during dehydration
      • To break dormancy, plant is stimulated with an increase in gibberellins
    • Ethylene: the only hormone that’s a gas, promotes fruit ripening and cell death (apoptosis), induced by an increase in auxin
  • Know the cohesion-tension theory
    • Transpiration creates a negative pressure in the leaves which produce column-like structures of water molecules (cohesion part of the theory), when a water molecule transpires, a new one is pulled through
  • Know the development of animals
    • Protostome – spiral cleavage, determinate cleavage, and schizocoelus
      • Mouth first
    • Deuterostome – radial cleavage, indeterminate cleavage, and enterocoelus
      • Anus first

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