Exam 1 (Plants) Study Guide

Part 1 of BIO 193 – Plants I

  • Know the evolutionary history of plants
    • How they became terrestrial and what are those adaptations
    • Benefits of living on land
    • Disadvantages of living on land
    • Why aren’t algae always classified as plants?
  • Know the Alternation of Generations life cycle
    • What gives rise to what? Through what process? (Ex: Spores give rise to gametophytes through mitosis)
    • Know haploid and diploid stages
    • Know what the following are: spore, sporophyte, gametophyte, egg, archegonia, sperm, antheridia, zygote, meiosis, mitosis, fertilization, sporangia
  • Know the different phyla of plants and their characteristics
    • Be able to identify them if you saw a picture of them (specifically those in the PowerPoint and the handouts)
    • For each kind (nonvascular seedless, vascular seedless, and vascular seeded), know the main facts
      • Is the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte? Is the sporophyte independent of the gametophyte? Why (in some cases) is the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte? For what purposes?
      • Is water needed for fertilization (because of the presence of flagella on the sperm)?
      • Homosporous or heterosporous?
      • For seeded vascular plants, monocot or eudicot? What’s the difference? How can you tell the difference?
        • What’s the difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
        • Seeds – what develops to become the seed? What becomes the seed coat? “Three generations under one roof” refers to what? How is this explained?
  • Know the plant anatomy
    • What are the non-reproductive organs? What are their functions?
    • Be able to describe the purpose of the leaves, the many different parts, how to differentiate between monocot leaves and eudicot leaves, know the different kinds of leaves, know what is in a leaf (vascular bundle, palisade, etc), know the following: mesophyll, microphyll, megaphyll, strobili, sporophyll
    • Be able to describe the purpose of stems, the different parts of a stem, the differences in monocot and eudicot stems, know how stems can lead to growth (and know the different kinds of growth as well as their accompanying wood [hardwood, sapwood, etc] and what it does/how it contributes to the plant), know the following: cork cambium, vascular cambium, apical meristem, lateral meristem, pith (and whether eudicot or monocot stems have them)
      • If I were to walk from the outside of a eudicot (or monocot) stem to the inside, what would I cross?
    • Be able to describe the root and the purpose of a root cap. How does the root work? Know the following: cotyledon, coleoptile, hypocotyl, epicotyle, radical, coleorhiza
  • Be able to describe the flower and the different parts of it. Know the following: style, stigma, anther, filament, petal, tube cell, generative cell, pollen.
  • How are flowers different in monocots and eudicots?

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